Disease Control, by Vern Archer (updated  April 2013)

How do you know when your Discus are Sick?
For the new discus hobbyist, early detection and diagnosis of a problem can be the difference between life or death for the animal.

Stress; Discus are very susceptible to stress and with stress, illness is quick to follow.

So before you medicate make sure their environment is good.

Here are some of the causes of stress?

1. Poor Water quality - high in nitrate or ammonia, general heavy bacterial load in their tank. This is usually an issue with gravel in the tank and infrequent water changes, or the use of plant fertilizers increasing the nitrate level.  Inadequate or dirty filters and to many fish can contribute to stress.  Discus are very sensitive to ammonia and nitrate and the overall bacterial load. It's not unusual for them to go on a hunger strike because of bad or decaying food left in their tank.

2. Shipping - if you have purchased mail order or from a store. Symptoms may not show up right away, it can be a few weeks following a major move.  Don't forget to quarantine.

3. Lighting - Intense overhead lighting can scare and stress a discus. An aquarium facing a window is another good example.  Over night lighting should be used in the form of a night light to avoid a sudden shock when their light goes on in the am.  This can cause the fish to panic and run into something injuring itself or even causing death.

4. Tank placement - avoid high traffic areas and placing the tank to low to the ground.

5. Tank mates - avoid fast moving dominant species where they are quick to get the food and are always chasing the discus, especially the nocturnal fish that are more active at night. Discus are best kept by themselves.

6. Temperature - low water temperatures over time will impact the discus especially as it ages. Minimum temperature 84F or 29C.  Fry should be initially kept at 86F or 30C.

7. Using shot gun remedies, because you think there may be a problem, usually makes things worse, especially if you already have poor environmental conditions.  Try improving their environment first before throwing medications at them. A continuous bombardment of medication impacts internal organs like the kidneys and liver shortening their life and cannot correct their environment.

Symptoms of stress; hiding, facing the back of the aquarium and the reluctance to eat with white fluffy feces.  Usual cause, intestinal flagellates.  It is well documented that flagellates  can live in the intestine of the discus as part of their normal flora and it's only when the fish is weakened from disease or stress that the flagellates take over impacting and eventually killing the fish, if left untreated. 

There are a number of resistant strains of flagellates circulating the hobby, caused by the improper use of medications, so extended treatments may be necessary along with an increase in temperature.  Make sure to use 400 to 450mg of metro per 10 gallons daily for at least 10 to 14 days, to avoid developing a resistant strain of flagellates.  Flagellates themselves are negatively impacted by high temperature and since the higher temperatures increases the metabolism of the discus, it allows it to better fight of the infection. 

Treat with metro per the instructions further down the page under Symptoms 1).

Healthy Discus;  

Have good colour, not dark; 
Clear bright eyes, not cloudy; 
Fins are erect, not clamped;  
Their feces is dark in colour, not white or stringy;  
They are responsive to a good quality food; 
Are often seen swimming throughout the aquarium, playing by pecking each other, a sort of tag. 

 My Iguarpe pair (left),
 White Butterfly (middle)
 Red Albino male (right) 
 These Discus show all 
 the key signs of 
 healthy Discus.
 Note the eyes and fins.

Take the time; Observe your Discus; What do you see?

01)   White stringy feces?
Are the discus breathing hard?
03)   Are the fish scratching against objects in the aquarium?
Are the fish dark in colour?
Are the fish showing clamped fins and hiding?
Are the eyes dark and cloudy?
07)   Is the fish showing an abdominal swelling?
08)   Are the fish fussy on eating?
09)   Are the fish not responding to you i.e. begging for food?
Are your fish Head or Tail standing?

If you do not see any of these symptoms, then Congratulations! You have some healthy discus.  
However, if you are unsure about one or two symptoms, then read the "Cause and Remedy" of each symptom listed below.
Note; The following
detailed treatments must be completed in a bare bottom tank, with no carbon, ozone, or UV for an effective treatment.
But First Let's look at water quality and the overall ECO system that you have provided your discus.  There is no point medicating if you haven't provided the basics in discus keeping, in fact you will make matters worse.  A large water change should be the first course of action when a symptom appears,  accompanied  by a lite cleaning of the filter. Uneaten food, feces trapped in the gravel, and the lack of regular water changes, creates a fairly common discus health issue.  
Water Quality will impact your discus, especially high nitrate, ammonia, low oxygen and cold water.

The Basic Parameters;
* W
ater temperature is 84 to 85F or 29C for adults and 86F or 30C for fry;
* Nitrates are low 5 to 10 ppm, not to exceed 20 ppm, with negligible or "0" ammonia;  
* Your aquarium should not have low oxygen levels from to many fish or from
   utilizing CO2 injection and plant fertilizers;
* You should be performing regular maintenance with water changes, sponging
   the inside glass and the lite cleaning of the filter.  If you have ground cover, it's
   cleaned regularly so it doesn't harbour uneaten food and feces.

Discus will demonstrate the same symptoms for many different illnesses including poisoning. Differentiating the actual cause of the symptoms can be difficult, especially to the untrained eye.
So, think back;
  What has, or hasn't happened, in the past few days to the present, that would change the aquarium's environment, resulting in symptoms of a problem.  
For example; 
* The introduction of new plants or fish, possibly adding a pathogen?
* A small water change after weeks of no water changes, creating a rise in pH
   causing an ammonia spike?
* Disturbing the ground cover, cleaning or re-landscaping, releasing toxic sulphuric gas?
* Outside influences like paint fumes and pesticides? Water acts like a sponge
   and will absorb air bourne toxins.
* Overfeeding?  The introduction of a new food, or an old food?
The wrong treatment will make the problem worse.  If the problem has been created from poisoning either by sulphur gases in the gravel or ammonia from a dramatic rise in pH then the gill filaments have been damaged.  Adding any medication at this point further hinders the ability of the discus to extract oxygen through their damaged gill filaments. 
 In many cases a thorough cleaning of the aquarium, 
 a large 50 to 60% water change will remedy the situation.
 Add regular course non iodized table salt, found at your
 local grocery store, at 1 tablespoon per 10 gallons. 
 Often hobbyists panic, throwing every medication that
 someone has suggested on a forum, looking for instant results.
 The accumulation of different medications can kill your fish.  
A calm targeted approach is always best.

We live in a society where we take too many medications, impacting our long term health. 
So, the same can be said for our fish, each time a medication is added to an aquarium it impacts the immune system and internal organs, impacting it's longevity.
***Make sure a medication is warranted before proceeding.

**SymptomsCause and Remedy.

White Stringy feces?
The feces should be dark, not white and stringy indicating an internal intestinal problem.  
There are two different pathogens that can cause white stringy feces;

The first pathogen,
is caused by flagellates;  The feces is stringy, white and fluffy like cotton wool, and the fish stop eating and hide, usually facing the back of the aquarium.  All fish in the aquarium should be treated or the flagellates will quickly reappear.
The Medication of choice is 
(seen here on your left) loses strength if exposed to
moisture and light.  Store in a cool dark cabinet.
The Treatment;  Administer daily, for 10 days, after a small 
25% water change. The strength must be
 400mg per 10 gal.,
or you risk developing a super strain of flagellates.  Metro's
effectiveness is greatly reduced after 8 hours, so to kick off 
the treatment,  the first and second dose can be just 8 to 10
hours apart with a small water change prior to the dosage.  
The temperature should be slightly elevated 88 to 90F or 31 
to 32C
, to raise the animals metabolism. Also, add a couple of air stones. The reduction of light, will reduce stress, helping the recovery, and Metro loses it's strength when exposed to light.
Monitor your temperature and heater;  It's fairly common for a heater to stick to the "ON" state, especially at higher temperatures. In a small hospital tank make sure the wattage of your heater is appropriate, so if it were to stick "ON", it would not cook your fish.
Once the animal is eating, in addition to the daily treatment, you can place  metronidazole directly in the food.  Either by soaking live food in a metro and water solution (I use white worms in a shot glass with the mixture and let soak for 15 minutes prior to feeding) or by adding it directly to a frozen beef heart mix.  (Thaw about a tablespoon of frozen food and add 200mg, mix well and refreeze). Feed twice a day.

The second pathogen, is caused by intestinal worms; The feces is whitish yellow and stringy and your discus could be losing weight, getting thinner, despite an increased appetite. There are a number of different species of intestinal worms and each species can impact the discus with a variation on the symptoms including a reluctance to eat. 
The Treatment;  There are a number of worming medications and some are more effective then others, depending on the species of intestinal worm.
Wormer_PlusI recommend, "Wormer Plus", with flubenol available 
in the UK at
This medication is effective against most internal worms
and is very gentle, even on small fry. Two treatments a 
couple of weeks apart is the most effective. Prior to any
worming medication a lite cleaning of the filter and a large
50% water change must be administered.
In some cases, it may be necessary to add a worming medication directly to the food. 
(following the treatments of flubenol and waiting a couple of weeks)
PRaziquantel_powderFor this I recommend a powdered form of
found at
www.kensfish.com., seen here on the left.

prazi_proIf you have a live food culture, such as white worms, 
place a few worms in a shot glass with water and a
very small amount of   "Prazi Pro".   (liquid form of
praziquantel) found in most stores and on-line supply
houses. Let it sit for a few minutes in the solution and
as the white worms begin to die feed them to your fish.
This should be done twice a day morning and night 
repeated for 5 days.

Note; Only one method should be administered at any one time and make sure to syphon off any feces at the end of the day so the worms do not get re-ingested by the fish. 
The "Wormer Plus" manufacture recommends; one treatment every month ongoing, to control pathogens.  This will depend on what you are feeding and your situation. For example if you have a large display tank and you just want to control the pathogens, and not necessarily eliminate them, then this recommendation may work for you. Many fresh water and frozen foods can reintroduce worm issues, so for these reasons you may need to administer monthly.  
The "Wormer Plus" package
once opened will loose it's strength after about 3 months, so when purchasing, buy a number of smaller packets rather then one large packet.
One final comment on stringy feces, heavy worm infestations can create stress on the fish, resulting in an infestation of flagellates as well, especially on fry, so after worming, a 10 day  metronidazole treatment is advised.

Recently, I was directed to an excellent article put out by the University Of Florida by Roy P. E. Yanong 2 on internal worms. As I, and many others, have stated feeding fresh water foods can present long term problems for your fish. Check it out, I think you will find it very informative.

02) Are your fish breathing hard?
Heavy breathing;  Adult discus should have a respiration around 60 to 70, younger fish slightly higher around 70 to 80 measured in a quiet state, not when they are excited from feeding, chasing each other or fighting.  When we say respiration, it's the opening and closing of the mouth and gill once, and it's the number of times this happens in a minute. (Time it for 15 seconds and multiply by 4). The gill is the lung of the fish, fine gill filaments extract oxygen from the water allowing the fish to live.  Any damage to these filaments or the lack of oxygen in the water will cause rapid breathing in the discus as it trys to extract additional oxygen from the water. Small fry are especially susceptible to parasites like gill flukes that will feast on the young tender gill filaments of the fish, until it finally suffocates. Bacterial infections can also occur creating damage to the filaments, usually caused by poor water quality or from dramatic pH fluctuations. Discus are especially sensitive to ammonia which can result in gill filament damage, inviting a bacteria infection. 
Laboured, rapid breathing can be attributed to; Water quality; High ammonia or nitrate; To high  a temperature; Low oxygen from fish crowding; The use of plant fertilizers and CO2 injectors;  A bacterial or a parasite infection of the gill; And the bombardment of medications.

In extreme cases, the discus can be seen gasping, pointed at the surface, desperate for additional oxygen. This usually indicates a significant water issue, very low oxygen, high nitrate and ammonia or poisonous sulphur gases. Immediate action must be taken or the fish will suffocate.
Treatment; Removal of the fish immediately to your backup tank with new clean water and airstones, and proceed to do a 100% water change to the existing tank.  So unfortunately, if a backup tank or some large plastic buckets with air-stones are not available, the only course of action is an immediate series of very large water  changes of 75 to 80% are needed.  Large water changes are continued until the water parameters improve and add extra air-stones.  Drop the water temperature slightly, as cooler water has more oxygen, and "no feeding" until conditions improve.
stabilityPrime Don't forget to use Seachem's "Prime" to condition
 the water as chlorine can damage gill filaments and
 Prime can help lower ammonia.  A lite cleaning and 
 reseeding of your filter utilizing Seachem's 
 "Stability" may be necessary.

Note; If you have recently cleaned the gravel or performed a small water change you have poisoned your fish and you need to replace as much of your water as possible, ideally 100% and add air-stones.

The Two "extreme case" causes; 
The first,
read the "Perfect Storm" on the "Starting out" page, which addresses water changes and the transformation of ammonium to toxic ammonia with a rise in pH;  
The second, and the most common cause, is when sulphur gases are released when cleaning the gravel, burning the sensitive gill filaments of the fish.  The fish will need time to heal in clean quality water with a lite salt treatment and extra air stones. Reduce the amount of light on the aquarium to reduce stess.  This problem is the most frequent request for help that I receive, from  hobbyists all around the world.  If you have gravel, it's inevitable, as the gravel matures the sulphur gases build, "An Accident waiting to happen".

03) Are your fish scratching against objects in your aquarium?
If your discus scratch against a heater, a rock or other objects in your aquarium, then it's usually one of two issues;

he first issue; 
f you are performing water changes utilizing water direct from the tap, you may be introducing small nitrogen micro bubbles when adding the new water. These small bubbles are seen on the sides of the aquarium and also form on the gills of the fish, which they find irritating. This is temporary, once the water sits for awhile the bubbles disappear, until the next water change. Removal of sharp objects in the aquarium is warranted. 
The Treatment - Age your water, utilizing a storage tank or backup aquarium. If that's not possible, some success has been achieved by slowing down the change water and running it through a sponge or bouncing it off a plastic container to "burst" the bubbles as they enter the aquarium.  This problem occurs usually in the winter time, when the tap water is very cold.

The second issue, can be "gill flukes", worms that attach to the gill filaments of the fish, damaging the gill by consuming it.  Fry and young discus provide a feast for these worms as their gills are tender.  This feasting slowly suffocates the young fish and for fry I suggest Euthanizing with Clove Oil, as the treatment required to remove the flukes will result in their death, trying to save small fry is pointless and inhumane
Symptoms - We must be fairly certain of the presence of gill flukes prior to subjecting your fish to this treatment.
Ideally you will, very gently, take a gill scraping and verify their presence utilizing a microscope.
If that is not possible then the alternative is to do some detective work;
1) Verify water quality first especially nitrate and ammonia;
2) Bacterial gill disease can show similar heavy breathing however there is less scratching and is usually caused by sustained poor water quality.
3) Look for heavy fast breathing usually well over 100 with younger fish and scratching (flashing) against objects in the aquarium, an attempt to remove the intruder. Young fish may go dark with erratic swimming as well. 
If one fish has them, they all do, as they are just at various stages of the infection.  
4) Have you purchased fish or plants recently?
I find that adult wild fish can tolerate the fluke fairly well with no outward signs of an issue, only when they are kept with domestic fish or bred, will the flukes appear. 
I suggest strict quarantine and this treatment for any wild fish purchased. 
Note: Gill flukes don't just appear because of stress, they must be introduced to your aquarium by the purchase of plants or other fish.  They can also be introduced using fresh water foods.  If you have recently added fish or plants and fluke symptoms start to appear a few days later then you more than likely have gill flukes.  Don't panic and follow the following procedure carefully.  
The Medication; 
We use and recommend Formaldehyde 37% (Formalin). I have been asked about a Formalin based product containing 15% methanol which I do not recommend as any alcohol can be very toxic to your fish.  When in doubt do a 20 minute test on a sacrificial lamb to ensure you have the correct product.
Formaldehyde 37%
 toxic and I suggest gloves, mask and good air circulation by opening a window or two. 
If your discus has a cut or open wound do not treat until it has healed, similarly if you have moved the fish with a net, wait a couple days prior to treatment to make sure there was no damage to the skin.  
Formaldehyde 37% may be purchased at your local chemical supply store.
Note: Formaldehyde should be reasonably fresh the liquid clear not foggy or have white flakes in the bottom of the container. Avoid formaldehyde that has been sitting around for a few years.

There are no short cuts with this treatment! 
always get asked "There must be another way" and unfortunately there is not. S
hort cuts will result in the death of your fish.  They must be removed to a fresh newly setup tank after the 30 minute bath.  The existing tank torn down and dried and cleaned with alcohol.
This is the only known treatment that effectively eliminates gill flukes.  
The Treatment is a 30 minute bath, each time moving the fish, after the treatment, to a properly cleaned new tank setup, leaving the dying flukes and their eggs behind. Gill Flukes have evolved over the years and become resistant to all of the medications found in our stores.  Medications like Prazi Pro, Clout, Wormer Plus are all ineffective against gill flukes and are a waste of time and money. I know this from my own personal experience working with wild discus. Many medications claim they kill flukes, at best they may help reduce the numbers for a short time, but they do not kill all the resistant adult flukes, as some survive, as do the eggs.
Andrew Soh's book, "Naked Truth",  points this out as well and suggests a 30 minute bath with formalin at 18ml to 50 liters of water as the only effective method to rid your discus of "gill flukes".
The fish should be monitored closely during the 30 minute bath and then removed into a fresh tank and he suggests to repeat every 5 days for 4 treatments, each time moving to a new tank setup. 
Temperature is not stated, which unfortunately is very important since flukes multiply faster in warmer water, therefore the treatment time may need to be adjusted (shortened).
Note: I have used, 4 day intervals of the 30 minute treatment,
at Andrew's prescribed amount of formalin, at 84F, for 4 treatments, cleaning wild discus, with excellent results.
Dieter Untergasser author of "Discus Health";  In his chapter, in a book called "Exotic Discus of the World" by Dr. Clifford Chan, makes a similar claim of a more resistant gill flukes and makes a very similar suggestion to rid the gill fluke.  However he suggests Formalin at 8ml per 100 liters for 10 hours, which I have not tried, as I prefer to monitor the treatment and monitoring for 10 hours is not practical for me.
The best way to sterilize a tank, is to wipe it down with Isopropyl Alcohol and let dry for at least 3 days. The fluke eggs, as indicated by Andrew Soh and Dieter Untergasser are killed by the alcohol and 3 days of drying. Keep in mind, it only takes one or two eggs to survive for the tank to be re infested, so be thorough. Heaters and filter plastics should be thoroughly wiped down using Isopropyl Alcohol and let dry for 3 days. If you are using a canister filter replace everything inside the canister, followed by a thorough cleaning with alcohol and let dry.  Sponge, air line, air stones, and nets are relatively inexpensive so replace with new.  Refill the tank after the 3 days of drying and restart with Seachem's stability. 
I suggest setting up 3 small 30 gallon tanks;
the size of tanks will vary depending on the number of discus to be treated. 
Set the tanks up temporarily on styro-foam on the basement floor, bare bottom with a glass lid no light, residual room light is fine with a heater, sponge filter and extra air stones.  
Utilize Seachem's Stability to help condition the water and start the filters. Light feedings with daily water changes using clean hoses and nets.  
During the treatment, you are cleaning, drying and restarting the original tank where they will be moved to after the 4th treatment.  If you suspect you received these flukes from a store, complain! maybe they will loan you the tanks and equipment for the treatment.
Unfortunately the average hobbyist may feel this is overwhelming, however if you take your time and think it through, it is achievable and unfortunately the only way.  
Next time you bring plants or fish in, don't forget to quarantine.
Note: For
our younger hobbyists, make sure to get an adult involved!

 Are the fish dark in Colour?
Discus turning dark, tells you there is a problem, the fish is stressed;  Water quality, temperature, ammonia and nitrate levels are all factors for a discus turning dark. Some of the newer colour variations originate genetically from the "pigeon blood" strain, and are incapable of darkening their colour or showing stress bars.  If you have a mixture of these new colour variations among the traditional strains, one can conclude that they are affected as well.  Too often a hobbyist will see one or two dark fish and think there isn't a major issue when in fact a number of his fish are unable to show stress.

What else are you seeing?  We need to narrow it down.
Poor appetite?
Respiration is fast?
Clamped fins?
Feces colour is light in colour?
Is it one discus, or are they all dark?
Is there a lack of oxygen from fish crowding, the use of plant fertilizers and CO2?
Have you added anything new to the aquarium, fish or plants? 
Is there ground cover, gravel or sand, and have you recently disturbed it?
Have you done a lite cleaning of your filter lately?
Rating the problem; 
From minor to severe, meaning most of the above is being observed would be severe, and one or two would be a minor.
In a Minor Situation;
the respiration is fine, but the fish goes dark from time to time, and it's only one or possibly two discus in the tank.
Treatment; Isolate the fish, placing it in your small hospital tank for better observation.  A large water change and add some course salt, at 1 table spoon per 10 gallons, and monitor the situation, especially the feces for signs of intestinal worms or flagellates. 
A Medium Situation; respiration may be high; fins slightly clamped impacting all fish.  The ground cover may be hiding uneaten food or there may be a build up of protein on the inside glass and airline, especially if there is a chance of overfeeding. 
Treatment; Wipe everything down with a sponge and do a large 50 to 60% water change two days in a row. If you have ground cover in your tank, do a thorough cleaning or consider removing it, as the toxins below the surface may be the issue.  Extra air-stones should be added. 
Add coarse salt 1 tablespoon per 10 gallons. Do a lite cleaning of your filter.
Note; If disturbing or removing gravel in a mature aquarium, remove the fish to another tank, first.  Dangerous sulphur toxins within the ground cover may be released, killing your fish. 
If it's a Major Situation
* In a major situation something has happened to either the Water Quality or
  you have introduced a Virus or Parasite to your aquarium. The fish are gasping
  at the surface, clamped fins, dark and covered in a slimy grey fungus. 
  Note; the excess grey slime is a defence mechanism to fight off a bacterial,
  viral or toxic intrusion and should not be mistaken for velvet as an example.
Water quality
can be sulphuric gases released from your ground cover, if you have recently been disturbing or cleaning it.  Check for ammonia; As I point out in my article "Perfect Storm" a small water change can transform a buildup of ammonium to toxic ammonia by a rise in pH.  If it's ground cover, remove the fish into your backup tank or plastic pails and do a 100% water change making sure to use a chlorine remover like "Prime".
It can be a Virus; If you have introduced new fish or plants in the past few days
, and you have verified your water parameters are good, then
you could have the herpes virus.  
Treatment; You need to move the fish to a bare bottom tank for treatment. If you do not have a secondary tank, you have to remove the fish to a backup tank or large plastic pails with air-stones while you completely drain your tank, removing all gravel and plants and refill with clean water.  Use "Prime" water conditioner to remove the chlorine.  If done quickly your filter should be fine maybe do a very lite cleaning of it to make sure its functions efficiently.
Salt Bath Treatment;  Add coarse salt at 1 tablespoon per gallon into their present holding tank or pail, with air-stones for about 20 minutes, remove immediately if they roll over or appear stressed.  Place in newly furbished tank with lights off. 
We now have achieved a temporary cleaning of the gill area, helping the animal breath
Next; Add Furan2, at the recommended manufacturer's dosage, and repeat the antibiotic daily for at least 10 days following a large 50% water change. Also add course salt at 1 to 1.5 tablespoons per 10 gallons (2ppt) slowly bringing the salinity up over several hours.  Maintain this level of salt adding any salt removed from daily water changes.
Note; A small pen style salt meter used for maintaining KOI ponds, 
Salt_Pen  makes it much easier to maintain the desired 2 ppt 
concentration of salt. It measures in both ppt and %.
The Koi Medic Pen shown here sells for around $100.00
  available at
Turn the lights off, as this will reduce stress on the fish, and add extra air stones. Temperature should be around 83 to 84 F or 28C to help with the oxygen content of the water. Note the virus usually starts with one fish and spreads quickly in the tank, an early response is critical to their survival. No food as water quality is extremely important.
If you have other tanks or even an outside KOI pond, this virus can easily spread and is highly contagious. Wash your hands at every step. Do not share nets or hoses between tanks.
The key, is not to panic, think it through, but act quickly, it only takes a few days to kill.
Make sure to continue treatment for the full 10 days.
In the absence of Furan 2, 
Maracyn 2 could be used or a
new product by
Tetra called 
"Fungus cure" which has the
same antibiotic as Furan2 and
is available in most "Pet Stores" 
and "Supply Houses". 

FYI, Coarse salt can be found at most grocery stores non iodized salt in a 2.2 kilo bag for about $4.
For those hobbyists that have water holding tanks gradually lowering your pH over a few days with the daily water changes will reduced secondary bacteria. However familiarity with lowering pH and having a good meter is a must.

05) Are the fish showing clamped fins and hiding?
Colour and respiration are good, but the fish's fins are down not erect and it may be hiding afraid to come out.  This is common with new fish going into a tank for the first time. Lower the light level a little, so it can see out of the tank, and make sure the water parameters are good especially the temperature (86 F or 30 C for fry or 84 to 85F or 29C for adults). 
If it's small fry, hopefully it's not a "one of", as fry are more relaxed with a few of their siblings around, 6 to 8 is recommended. They are a social animal and prefer other discus around. Clamped fins is more of an emotional response showing fear and stress. Spending time with them will help, but long term if there is only one or two fry in a tank, they will not eat properly and therefore not grow properly, afraid to come out, and the stress can bring on disease. The same can be said, if you only have one adult discus in a tank. If you can't afford to purchase 6 to 8 fry at a time, or at least 2 adult discus, you might consider keeping another less expensive type of fish, as discus keeping is unfortunately a relatively expensive hobby.

06) Are the eyes dark and cloudy?
Cloudy eyes
usually indicate an internal problem; bacterial infection, intestinal worms, poor water quality or even a nutritional problem. High Nitrates and cold water are also a serious factor.
I suggest worming and a hard look at what you are feeding. Water quality and diet are instrumental to the health of your animal and cloudy eyes are a good indicator that this is not happening. 
If you are seeing a fungus this is due to poor water quality and needs to be treated as soon as possible. 
Treatment;  Increase the frequencies of water changes and ensure water parameters are good. I recommend Maracyn 2 or Furan2 and coarse salt at 1 to 1.5 table spoon per 10 gallons (2 ppt). Treat every day following a small water change until the fungus clears. Isolate the animal to its own tank for treatment. Increase the temperature to 88F or 31C.
I also suggest, in addition to the anti-biotic, for eye fungus or fungus
Methylene_blueon an open wound, use  "Methylene blue"  directly on the 
fungus.   Remove the fish, gently placing it on an old towel, 
still in the net. Using an eyedropper, drop one or two drops
of methylene blue directly on the fungus, count to ten and 
return the fish to the water.   Obviously,   you want to be 
organized and quick with this procedure, but it's effective 
and can be done twice daily. 

07) Is the fish showing an abdominal swelling?
If your discus is showing abdominal swelling it can be a couple of issues;
Usually caused by food or over eating; 
An intestinal blockage or constipation is generally caused by pellet and flake foods. The foods fed dry, expand with moisture in the stomach causing a blockage. 

Another source of blockage is the failure to blanche greens whether it be spinach, lettuce or peas etc. prior to adding them to your BH food mix. Blanching softens the vegetable matter making it easier for the fish to digest. Peas are a natural laxative and should be included in your food formula, it can ensure they are kept regular. 

It can also be caused by over feeding.

Treatment; Isolate the fish, stop feeding and maintain a temperature of 86 F or 30C. 


Administer an Epsom salt treatment, (seen here on your left),
available at most drug stores. Create a liquid solution and Gradually add  the Epsom salts solution over 3 to 4 hours until you reach 2 level tablespoons per 15 gallons.  Low indirect light to reduce stress.  After 24 hours if it hasn't worked then it probably won't.

It can be a bacterial infection;  Bloat, which is usually caused by water quality caused by uneaten food trapped in the ground cover or behind aquarium furniture.  In some cases it can be a heavy infestation of worms blocking the intestine. Isolate the fish and monitor the feces to help identify the cause. Usually there are other signs like "pop eye" and the swelling can be throughout the fish instead of just the abdominal cavity. 

Treatment add a strong internal anti biotic like Kanamycin. 

Kanaplex(Seachem's Kanaplex) At 1 to 2 measuring spoons per 5 gallons
every other day for up to 10 days following a water change. 

If the feces can confirm that worms are present then worm the animal with "wormer plus". 

Note; 100 gm container of Kanaplex is available at www.petsandponds.com.

Unfortunately there is a high mortality rate with abdominal swelling, the key is to have a good preventative program, worming your fish and not feeding live fresh water foods will prevent heavy infestations of worms that can plug the intestinal tract. Blanching greens that you add to your BH mix.

Finally, maintain good water quality minimizing the bio load of your aquarium.

Do not place to many fish in your aquarium which taxes your bio-load.

Do not overfeed.

Perform regular water changes and consider getting rid of your ground cover.

It's important to catch it early.  If there is no improvement after a week of treatment then the humane thing to do is euthanize using Clove Oil, see method further down this page.

There have been some success stories reported on the forums treating over an extended period like 30 days with Kanaplex and salt, however I feel this is very rare. The cost of medication and the suffering of the animal should be a consideration.

08) Are the fish fussy on eating?
If the fish, suddenly stop eating and the feces is fine, then we need to look at water quality and the bio load. Discus, I believe, have a keen sense of smell and if there is rotting food left in the tank, or their is a protein build up on the inside glass or airlines, this will put them off eating. Measure your water quality for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate to confirm it's poor water quality. Water temperature also can have an impact, cold water slows their metabolism making them sluggish.
Note: If you have ground cover, then you could have issues with it harbouring uneaten food and feces, and if you are going to perform a good cleaning, first remove your fish, as the sulphur gases are toxic and stirring the ground cover can kill your fish. 
Your best to do this project when you can monitor your fish through out the day. Change at least 80 to 90% of the water after cleaning the ground cover, then add "Prime", then add your fish. 
There are many accounts on the forums, where hobbyists cleaned the ground cover at night, only to wake up the next morning to find their fish dead from these toxic gases.
Treatment;  A thorough cleaning of the inside of the aquarium and a large 50 to 60% water change, two days in a row. A lite cleaning of the filter as well.
The other issue could be diet, again assuming the feces is fine. A balanced nutritional diet will put the sparkle back in their eyes.  Most serious hobbyists and breeders feed a beef heart Seafood mix with vitamins, minerals, fruits and vegetable to provide a well rounded diet. You can also add the occasional feed of white worm, or Hakkari's frozen Spirulina adult brine shrimp, or if they will eat it, a good quality dry food, being careful not to over feed. 
For more information on this subject
visit the "Nutrition page". 

09) Are the fish not responding to you i.e. begging for food?
If your fish are healthy and happy then this should not be a problem, they should get excited when you first walk in the room following your every step looking to be fed.
Now if this is not happening, what are their water parameters including temperature?  Whens the last time you cleaned your tank and performed a water change? Can they see you? Or is their light so bright on the tank that they can't see out. This will result in skittish, nervous discus as all they can see is the occasional shadow.  Read "starting out" on page 3.
Have you taken the time to bond with your discus by hand feeding? What are you feeding? It's hard to get excited if it's the same old cereal every day (flake food). I have had numerous hobbyists, once they try our food formula, can't believe the improvement in their fish. So a good nutritional diet could be the answer.

10) Are your fish Head or Tail standing?
Head or tail standing,
is an indication of a swim bladder problem.  A successful outcome is dependent on early detection and treatment.
See Understanding Swim Bladder Problems by Robin and Ron Futrell @
www.discusnews.com/article/cat-02/swimblader.shtml .

Why are Discus Prone to so many Problems?
Life expectancy of a discus in a closed environment, like an aquarium, is usually less than in the vastness of the wild, where water quality is usually not an issue.  The discus has no natural defence against the hobbyist that neglects the aquarium's ECO system.  Discus originate in the Amazon, in very soft acidic water, where there are less bacterial and viral issues.  Thousands of years of evolution have not prepared the animal for all the world's pathogens in the confines of an aquarium.  A good reason to keep the animal away from community tank situations.  Discus require greater water quality, than most other tropical fish, do to their sensitivity to ammonia and nitrate.
It's also the state of the industry, unfortunately a number of sick fish are sold in our stores and disease is prevalent.  A great number of stores use massive central water filtration systems and even with the best intentions, utilizing UV sterilizers and elaborate filters, the mixing of fish from all over the world, exposes the discus to numerous bacterial, viral and parasitic problems.
Good water quality, nutritional food, avoiding fresh water aquatic foods; live or frozen, will keep your discus happy and in good health.  Buy your fish from one source, a quality breeder who practices proper discus keeping.
Many pathogens can appear from other fish like cardinals, since most are wild caught and carry intestinal worms. Scavenger fish like plecos and catfish which feed from the bottom can be loaded in parasites. Plants, purchased from a store can become carriers of pathogens to your tank. How may times have you seen fish that have been returned to the store usually in horrible condition placed in the plant tank? Too often, I see hobbyists collecting discus as if they were stamps, buying compulsively the next colour variation to add to their collection, adding pathogens to their aquariums at every purchase. Adult discus, can live and survive with a small concentration of worms and to the untrained eye, look fairly normal.  However if you introduce fry which love to eat everything and anything including adult feces, the worms quickly infest their intestines, causing the fry to weaken and become sick, often dieing. So if you are placing young fry with adults or other types of fish, make sure the adults are free from intestinal worms.  If you plan on keeping the fry in their own aquarium, make sure to use a separate net and syphon hose, and wash your hands, as worms and other pathogens are easily transmitted from tank to tank.

The "Medicine Cabinet":
I have assembled a list of antibiotics and medications for those that like to be prepared. I suggest keeping them in a cabinet or drawer in a cool, dark and dry place away from small children. I have found these particular products to be effective.  However, antibiotics should be used properly, and when treating make sure to finish the treatment so as not to develop resistant bacterial strains.
I don't use "shotgun" or "cure all" treatments as targeting a specific problem is more effective, less stressful and less damaging to the internal organs of the fish.  In an emergency, and a "shotgun" remedy is all you can find, then you have no choice, but it is better to be prepared.
01) External Antibiotic; Furan2; Or maracyn2; Or tetra fungus guard
       available at  
www.mops.ca  or www.petsandponds.com
02) Internal Antibiotic for internal infections Kanamycin or Kanaplex www.petsandponds.com
03) Internal flagellates Metronidazol  www.kensfish.com or www.mops.ca
04) Worming medications "wormer plus" with flubenol www.plymouthdiscus.com
05) Worming med powdered "praziquantel" www.kensfish.com
06) Clove oil used for euthanizing, sold at local Health food store or pharmacy.
07) Prime or Safe water treatment
www.mops.ca or www.petsandponds.com
08) Seachems Stability for seeding filters www.mops.ca or www.petsandponds.com
09) Methylene blue www.mops.ca 
10) Coarse salt non iodized pickling salt sold by the 2.2 kilo bag in your local grocery store.
11) Epsom salts, sold at most drug stores.

Iyour Sick Fish is Suffering; 
Not responding to treatment, then the humane thing is to euthanize with
"Clove Oil".
The following method is inexpensive, fast acting and will not place any stress on the animal. Clove oil acts like an anesthetic putting the animal to sleep.
Clove Oil Solution
This solution's strength is based on treating 1/2 a gallon of aquarium water.

Treatment; Utilizing a pail or 1 to 2 gallon aquarium, add 1/2 gallon of aquarium water along with an air stone.  Add 10 to 15 drops of Clove Oil into a small jar 3/4 filled with aquarium water, place cap on jar and shake well.  The solution should be milky white in colour.
Place the fish in your pail or small aquarium and slowly, over a few minutes, add the solution until the fish is resting on the bottom of the container. I pour the solution into the air-stone which helps to disperse the solution evenly.
There should be no movement after a few minutes other than you may see the gill move very slowly as the fish is still breathing.  If the fish continues to move around add more solution.
After about 10 minutes or so and you are confident the fish is a sleep, add about 20 to 25% white grain alcohol (2oz. of vodka per 8 oz. of water) to finish it off.
I reduce the amount of water at this point since the fish is asleep, which saves on the amount of alcohol required.
After 20 minutes,
do a 30 second monitoring of the gill to confirm the animal has expired.
At this point I bag the fish (no water) and place it in the freezer until I can dispose.

In closing, disease prevention through early detection and treatment and maintaining good water quality and a good balanced diet, will keep your discus healthy and happy. 
Please forward any questions or comments to archer@rogers.com.

Disease Alert -
Discus Virus

A University of California has isolated and identified a Discus virus as a form of Herpes virus.  It is very difficult to isolate and required advanced equipment.  There is no cure or any way of detecting animals that have previously been infected.
In addition Discus samples supplied to the University of Florida have concluded that a virus was present in the samples provided.
In Germany wild Altum angel fish had been exposed to domestic angels and suddenly became sick and were analysed and found to have had the herpes virus.
This particular virus, first appeared in December of 2009 in some of the local area fish stores.  A number of the discus forums around the world reported numerous hobbyists and suppliers with the illness after purchasing and introducing new fish to their existing stock.
Symptoms - The new fish may look fine, since they are the carriers of the virus, but the existing discus, within a day or so, clamp their fins going dark with a heavy slime, huddled in the corner or gasping for oxygen at the surface of their tank.
Treatment - (see above # 4 Major).

2013 Update
now its be over a year since I have heard of any issues with discus and this virus.  However it was still circulating and killing Koi last summer.
As with the common flu and cold viruses you can always count on a virus returning, its the nature of the world we live in. So it's always a good idea to follow quarantine procedures and have your fish medicine cabinet prepared.





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